2 vapour trail
Two vapour trails made by passing aircraft. Useful to help explain the Wilson cloud chamber
3 vapour trail
Three (or four) vapour trails made by passing aircraft. Useful to help explain the Wilson cloud chamber
An artists impression of the Atlas detector CERN. This detector is being built underground.
- Background Radiation - Exposure
Background radiation - Sources
Every second, more than 100 cosmic rays fly through your body. At the same time, several radioactive atoms in the air you have inhaled disintegrate inside your lungs and and a few thousand potassium atoms and two or three uranium atoms, which arrived in your food and drink, break apart inside you and bombard your body with radiation. 50,000 gamma rays enter your body from the soil and building materials.
(New Scientist - Radiobiology No 129)
Bubble chamber CERN
The Big European Bubble Chamber pumped 13 million times over 11 years, each time exerting a force of 350 tons. When the piston released its pressure the liquid gas inside boiled and charge particles left tracks of bubbles.
CERN computer farm
Though it doesn't really give an idea of the sheer scale of the thing, this is a photograph of some of the pentium dual processors in the computer farm at CERN (at least in 2003)
The chain reaction associated with nuclear fission is driven by fast neutrons.
CMS is big
Another attempt to display the size of the compact muon solenoid at CERN.
Compat solenoid !
Trying to give an idea of just how big the compact muon solenoid (CMS) at CERN is. Pictured being assembled above ground in 2003.
Cooling for CERN
Tanks for mixing Helium and Nitrogen which is then used to cool the underground ring. These are from the site above CMS in 2003
- Cosmic Timeline
Invented by Ernest Lawrence in 1930, this small cyclotron is the fore-runner of today's huge machines such as the 27km LEP at CERN where electrons travelled round over 11,000 times per second.
Drift tubes seen in Microcosm CERN. Originally from the LEP
Drift Tubes for heavy ions
Drift tubes for heavy ions - seen at CERN
Electron positron pair
Cloud chamber photograph showing an electron positron pair bent in opposite directions by a magnetic field
Fundamental Particles Chart
see also pdf
Fusion Reactor model
Model of a cross-section of a fusion reactor (JET) at the Culham laboratory, Oxford.
Graphite diffraction pattern
Graphite electron diffraction pattern from the fluorescent screen of a Teltron tube. In wave particle duality this is evidence for the wave nature of electrons.
- Hydrogen Emission Spectra
Ernest Lawrence cyclotron. Patented in 1934 the first was approximately the size of a hand.
- Line Spectra
Earth's magnetic protection
- Millikan's Oil Drop Experiment
Simple representation of the chain reaction showing the first step associated with nuclear fission. The rection continues as the fast neutrons interact with other atoms.
An representation of a nuclear fusion reaction similar to those that occur in the Sun.
Old particle accelerator
128 of these 352MHz radio frequency cavities were positioned around CERN's 27 km LEP ring to accelerate electrons and positrons.
PET studies of glucose metabolism to map human brain's response in performing different tasks. Subjects looking at a visual scene activated visual cortex (arrow), listening to a mystery story with language and music activated left and right auditory cortices (arrows), counting backwards from 100 by sevens activated frontal cortex (arrows), recalling previously learned objects activated hippocampus bilaterally (arrows), and touching thumb to fingers of right hand activated left motor cortex and supplementary motor system (arrows). Images are cross-sections with front of brain at top. Highest metabolic rates are in red, with lower values from yellow to blue.
From Planck's 1900 experiment where Planck showed that energy had to be quantised.
Proton Neutron curve
Graph of neutron number vs proton number showing stable isotopes
A very simple gif to illustrate the penetrating abilities of the three types of radioactivity.
- Rutherford gold foil
- Size in atoms and metres
- Spectral lines
- Structure within the atom
Tape storage at CERN
Picture of the five 300 terabyte storage silos at the CERN computer centre in 2003
The Photoelectric Effect
The Heinrich Hertz experiment first carried out in 1881 as a precursor the Michelson Morley experiment in 1887.