3D ultrasound image
3D ultrasound photo.
- A Travelling Wave
- Adding sine waves
- Air to glass reflection and refraction
"in space no one can hear you scream". Sound does not travel in a vacuum.
- Andy Darvill Electromagnetic Spectrum
- Andy Darvill Sound Waves on CRO
- BBC GCSE Bitesize Waves
Breaking Glass with sound (resonance)
Finding the resonant frequency for a glass. Viewing with a strobe and high speed camera
Breaking the sound barrier
A series of planes breaking the sound barrier.
- Buster Online Tests
- Buster Online Tests
CAT (CT) scanner
Computer (Axial) Tomography scanners take x-ray slices (tomographs) at mm distances along the body. The images taken can then be built up, using a computer, to produce a detailed (3D) picture. Sometimes a contrast dye is used to enhance the definition.
More detailed CMB image with the signal from our Galaxy removed showing temperature fluctuations of +-200 microKelvin
- Colour (SE)
Three colours, just mix them up and see what happens
Concorde take off and sonic boom
Compilation of Concorde taking off and a sonic boom (1.19)
Another excellent Doodle Science animation
Core Practical Length vs Frequency
A fixed load of 400g gives a fixed tension in the 22swg constantan wire. The length of the bridge is changed and the resulting frequency change measured.
Core Practical Speed of Sound (Oscilloscope)
A level Core Practical 6
Using a classroom c.r.o. (cathode ray oscilloscope) to measure the speed of sound. This is a tricky experiment and this type of oscilloscope in increasingly rare and there is a better demonstration available using a PicoScope.
The flashing trace is a problem related to the frequency of the camera and the signal.
Another excellent Doodle Science animation (1.12)
Place the microphone to hear the waves
Doppler Effect Examples
A series of doppler effect animations
Doppler Wave Fronts
Simple representation of the doppler effect caused by a car moving
Double slit diffraction
Tracking across the screen of a double slit interference pattern showing the phase difference
Double slit interference
Wave particle simulation for double slit interference.
- E M Wave
The energy of these transverse waves increases with increasing frequency.
Electromagnetic Spectrum - Harm
Chart detailing some of the harmful effects of the electromagnetic radiation.
Electromagnetic Spectrum - Uses
Chart detailing some of the uses of electromagnetic radiation.
Nice reference for the electromagnetic spectrum
Emission Absorption spectra
An explanation of how continuous, emission and absorption spectra come about. (2.43)
Focal length How to measure it
Short animation showing how to measure the focal length of a lens
Slide and image back and forth on a light track and watch it move in and out of focus.
- GCSE.com Waves
Al Gore giving a short talk about Global Warming
Graphite diffraction pattern
Graphite electron diffraction pattern from the fluorescent screen of a Teltron tube. In wave particle duality this is evidence for the wave nature of electrons.
Handout - Reflection
Handout showing red laser light being reflected and refracted by a semicircular glass (plastic) block. Light is refracted at angles less than the critical angle and reflected at angles greater than the critical.
Handout - Refraction
Handout showing red laser light being refracted by a semicircular block and an illustration of a spectrum being formed by refraction
Handout - Refraction (magic)
Optical illusions using refraction
Handout - Scanning by reflection
Some examples of where ultrasound can be used
Handout - Seismic waves
Handout showing p and s waves and how they provide evidence for the structure of the Earth's interior.
Hearing and how it works
Video to help understand hearing loss and hearing impairment by explaining how hearing works. (3.08)
Hearing the Sound (SE)
Vibrations 0 = 4.13
Speeds (air, sound and light) 4.13 - 7.43
Noisy objects 7.43 - 13.18
Hearing range 13.18 - 18.58
Herschel - infra red
Short video (9.58 min) starting with Herschel's discovery and then looking at infrared in more detail. The last 3 mins are basically a sales pitch but the infrared images are interesting
How to remember the electromagnetic spectrum
Very simple, short (2.08), video telling a silly story to help remember the order of the electromagnetic spectrum. I particularly like the nmemonic at the end
- Hydrogen Emission Spectra
How to tell if the water is hot !
Infra red - head
infra red image
Interference of Light Waves
Matter resource from the University of Liverpool (uses Java)
IR Remote Control
Showing the infra red light from a television remote control. IR cannot be seen by the naked eye but can be seen by many video cameras.
Laser diffraction and interference
Patterns for single and double slit interference for red yellow and green lasers. Also point interference
Light and Sound Quiz
A nice little quiz to get you in the mood
- Line Spectra
- Longer waves
Simple, clear animation showing a longitudinal wave
Make your own spectroscope
Some simple instructions to make your own 'Blue Peter' spectroscope using and old CD.
Modern Medicine - History of X-rays
Great all-round informative video:
4.40 Hand held fluoroscope
5.30 Roentgen's discovery
11.23 X-ray shoe fluoroscope
12.40 Electron accelerator (Crooke's tube)
15.53 Evolution of X-ray production
19.54 Electron gun
20.40 X-rays and the EM spectrum
- Multi phasor diffraction
Object and Image
Slide the lens back and forth and watch the impact on the image.
Object and image size
Move the object towards the lens and watch what happens to the size of the image.
PhET Bending Light
A great html simulation for refraction and reflection
PhET Colour Vision
Another PhET animation showing what happens when you mix colours and when filters are added.
- Photoelectric Effect
Video showing the photoelectric effect. The demonstration is improved using an HT gauze. The electroscope even recharges after the discharge
Photoelectric Effect - recharge
A gold leaf electroscope being recharge by UV light !
From Planck's 1900 experiment where Planck showed that energy had to be quantised.
A demonstration of the polarisation of microwaves
- Prism spectrum
- Radar screen
Radiotelescope - Arecibo
Picture courtesy of the NAIC - Arecibo Observatory, a facility of the NSF.
The World's largest and most sensitive radiotelescope located in Arecibo, Puerto Rico.
305m fixed reflecting surface suspended in a natural limestone sinkhole. The receiver is supported some 150m above. Used by, amongst others, SETI. Opened Nov 1963
Radiotelescope - Very Large Array
Very Large Array in New Mexico is composed of 27, 25 metre diameter, antenna in a Y-shape formation, on rail tracks, electronically combined to give the resolution of an antenna 36 km across and the sensitivity of a dish 130m across.
Diagram showing the creation of a real image and how the magnification can be calculated
Move the slider to raotat the mirror
A simple experiment showing reflection and refraction of a laser light by a semi circular glass block
Matter resource from the \university of Liverpool (uses Java)
- Refraction (higher)
- Refraction 3
Animation of refraction using the semicircular glass blocks that can be used to obtain values for the incident angle and the refracted angles of light.
Refraction of light and water
Refraction: Light in a glass block, water. Modelling refraction and total internal reflection
Resonance experiment using mass and two springs driven by a signal generator
Resonance - breaking glass
Breaking a glass using the resonant frequency. Video enhanced using strobe lighting to show the standing waves
Ripple Tank - single and double slit diffraction
Diffraction patterns for a single and double slit shown in the water of a ripple tank
Ripple Tank - Two point interference
Ripple tank being used to show the interference of two point sources
- Ripples (concentric)
Ritter - UV
Starting with Ritter's experiment with photographic paper, this short video (3.40) goes on to look at UV-A, UV-B and UV-C before going on to briefly descrive their use in space exploration
In 1801 Johann Ritter discovered UltraViolet Light. Physics Teacher James Lincoln explains how it was done and recreates the experiment.(0.59)
s & p waves
Very short clip showing how s and p waves move through the Earth.
- Shorter waves
Signal Generator 10,000Hz
A 10,000Hz tone
Signal Generator 1000Hz
A 1000Hz tone
Signal Generator 15,000Hz
A 15,000Hz tone
Signal Generator 5000Hz
A 5000Hz tone
Signal Generator 500Hz
A 500Hz tone
Knowing the speed of sound in water, the formula speed = distance / time and a computer, it is possible to use ultrasound to produce an image of the sea bed.
Stylish animation displaying how Sonar on a ship works detecting underwater activity.
Sonar How it works
Explanation of how sonar is being used to map the sea floor in the caribbean.
Sources of infrasound
Acoustic waves with low frequencies, below 20Hz, are called infrasound and are produced by a variety of natural and man-made sources. You could add to this picture: Animal communications and detection of animal movements.
Spanner & nut
Speed of sound in metal
Using Observer data logger to record the speed of a sound wave in a solid metal rod.
Quick, clear animation of a standing wave
- Standing Wave - 1 fixed point
- Standing Wave - 2 fixed points
- Standing Waves
Combination of two travelling waves to produce a standing wave.
- Sum of travelling and reflected wave
Tectonic plate boundaries
From the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Plate boundaries are shown in greeny-blue, earthquakes with yellow dots and recent volcanoes as red triangles.
The Electromagnetic Spectrum - Microwaves
Short video (3.23). Looking in a bit more depth at microwave radiation. Includes CMB
The Electromagnetic Spectrum - NASA
Introduction to the elctromagnetic spectrum with links to each of the areas.
The Electromagnetic Spectrum - NASA
Short video (5.20). Introduction to the electromagnetic spectrum with a look at each of the wavelengths in turn.
The Electromagnetic Spectrum - Radio Waves
Short video (3.58). Looking in a bit more depth at radio waves from their first transmission at the end of the 19th Century.
The Photoelectric Effect
The Heinrich Hertz experiment first carried out in 1881 as a precursor the Michelson Morley experiment in 1887.
FLIR Thermal Imaging for the Criminally Stupid or one use for infra red imaging
Total Internal Reflection
Red laser light reflected inside a curved plastic rod
Total Internal Reflection
Another excellent Doodle Science animation (1.43)
- Transverse and Longitudinal Wave
Transverse and longitudinal wave
Very short video showing longitudinal waves and transverse waves in a slinky
- Tuning Fork
- Two lenses virtual object
Two source microwave interference
Demonstration of the interference from two microwave sources (Two source interference)
Another excellent Doodle Science animation (1.50)
- Ultrasound - scan
Ultrasound communication bottlenose dolphin
Short nature film showing how ultrasound is useful to bottlenose dolphins
Ultrasound How it works
Nice explanation of how ultrasound works
Simple diagram showing a virtual image seen in a mirror. It is not possible to project a virtual image.
Useful as a reference when looking at absorption and emission spectra.
- Water wave interference
A very clever Excel spreadsheet showing animations of a progressive wave moving from left to right and right to left and the formation of a standing wave.
Basic diagram of a wave. Amplitude = maximum displacement from the mid point, Wavelength = length/distance of a single wave, Frequency = number of waves passing a point per second. Speed of sound in air 330m/s. Speed of light in a vacuum 300,000,000 m/s
This short video defines frequency, time period, wavelength and wave speed, and explains why wave speed = frequency multiplied by wavelength, and gives a few example calculations.
An animation that allows you to change and measure the frequency, velocity and wavelength of waves and hence take some interesting measurements
Waves Longitudinal and Transverse
A nice description of transverse and longitudinal waves
- Waves on a string
- Waves Powerpoint
X-Ray - ankle
A colour enhanced x-ray of the ankle of a lady wearing high heels.
X-Ray body scan
Actually a fake picture of what a full body scan might look like.
X-Ray of lorry
An x-ray of a statue of Sheba (similar to the one at CERN) taken at the Rotterdam customs. The 9.3MeV source is strong enough to distinguish between a 1mm copper wire and 30cm of steel.
- X-ray tractor
A nice demonstration of the Young's slit experiment showing clearly how the waves interfere